Well, the good news is that the main capacitors (C8 and C9) are rated for 50V, so 30VAC supply should be within the Rachio's tolerance. Without knowing what the other MOVs (MV9 through MV18) are rated for you may need to replace them all in order to guarantee that 30V supply will not trigger them all.
If this is the case, MOVs are rated at less than 30V. and it would be a good idea to replace all of them.
From the looks of it, the size of MOVs are 1210, in which case 30V mov would be this one (link), I would not go higher due to 50V rating of the capacitors.
Size of the ferrite bead is harder to judge, it is probably either 0603 or 0805. 0603 is a safer bet and should fit into 0805 footprint as well if need be. In this case this (link) would be one of the acceptable parts.
If you are using less than 8 zones, you could try moving one of the good MOVs to replace the damaged one.
For example Moving MV11 over to replace MV10 would remove the surge protection from zone 8, not an issue if you are not using that zone.
Alternative to buying a ferrite bead filter, is to simply remove the damaged FB1 part and shorting the footprint with a piece of wire. SC / SP terminals will work again for majority of possible needs.
So, in summary, you may need to buy these (or similar) parts:
10 of these: 399-13766-1-ND (to upgrade MOVs to 30V to work with your supply)
2 of these: 1276-6387-1-ND (to replace the damaged filter on SP terminal)